Cover Letter - 170 kb
Cover, Signature Page, and Contents - 1 Mb
Executive Summary - 5 Mb
Chapter 1 Purpose and Need - 2 Mb
Chapter 1 introduces the project and presents and statement of purpose and need. The chapter presents detailed background information of transportation and traffic problems the project is designed to address.
Chapter 2 Project Alternatives - 3 Mb
Chapter 2 presents the alternatives selection process and highway design criteria. It includes discussion of alternatives considered but not carried forward for full evaluation, as well as detailed descriptions of each of the alternatives. The chapter includes maps, highway cross sections, and information on bridges.
Chapter 3.0 Contents - 223 kb
Chapter 3 presents discussion of many topics associated with the human, physical, and natural environment. Each subsection is structured similarly, with discussion of the Affected Environment (existing conditions) first, followed by discussion of impacts anticipated as a result of each alternative. These may be beneficial or adverse impacts. Separate subheadings divide discussion of permanent impacts of highway changes from temporary impacts expected during the construction process. At the back of many of the subsections are maps illustrating existing conditions, areas of impact, or both.
Chapter 3.1 Land Ownership - 1 Mb
Section 3.1 describes the complex of Federal, State, Borough, Native Corporation, and private lands and land use in the project area. It discusses changes that could occur under the various alternatives. This section addresses the need to acquire land for each of the alternatives.
Chapter 3.2 Land Use Plans Policies - 2 Mb
Section 3.2 focuses on land use plans of the Borough, State, and Federal land managers and includes several special land planning topics, such as the U.S. Forest Service’s Inventoried Roadless Areas, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness, and unresolved land transfer issues between agencies.
Chapter 3.3 Social Environment - 528 kb
Section 3.3 discusses the community character, demographics, and other elements of living in and around Cooper Landing and the potential impacts of the alternatives on the people and community of the area.
Chapter 3.4 Housing and Relocation - 263 kb
Section 3.4 focuses on existing housing and businesses and physical impacts to land and buildings, including the potential need to provide relocation assistance.
Chapter 3.5 Economic Environment - 416 kb
Section 3.5 discusses the economy of Cooper Landing and, to a certain extent, the economy of the Kenai Peninsula Borough and the State of Alaska. This section presents the cost of each alternative and the potential impacts to local businesses of diverting some traffic around the community under some of the alternatives.
Chapter 3.6 Transportation - 2 Mb
Section 3.6 presents the existing transportation system in the project area, including the existing Sterling Highway, other roads, pedestrians and bicycles, and aviation. Transportation problems and the effects of the alternatives towards resolving those problems are included.
Chapter 3.7 River Navigation - 593 kb
Section 3.7 focuses on Kenai River boating access and potential impacts, particularly during the construction process.
Chapter 3.8 Park and Recreation - 782 kb
Section 3.8 discusses project area fishing, scenic viewing, campgrounds, recreation sites, trails, and parks. It cross references to Chapter 4 for detail on those parks recreation areas protected by Section 4(f).
Chapter 3.9 Historic and Archaeological Preservation - 521 kb
Section 3.9 presents project area historic and prehistoric sites, districts, trails, and traditional Cultural Properties. It cross references to Chapter 4 for detail on those cultural/historic properties protected by Section 4(f).
Chapter 3.10 Subsistence - 574 kb
Section 3.10 summarizes a study of project area subsistence fishing, hunting, and gathering by Kenai Peninsula rural subsistence communities.
Chapter 3.11 Utilities - 365 kb
Section 3.11 discusses public utilities, such as power transmission lines, in the project area and the potential impacts of the alternatives.
Chapter 3.12 Geology and Topography - 412 kb
Section 3.12 discusses issues of soil stability and avalanches in the project area and risks to the various alternatives.
Chapter 3.13 Water Bodies and Water Quality - 792 kb
Section 3.13 discusses lakes, streams, and the Kenai River and potential effects to water quality during construction and long-term.
Chapter 3.14 Air Quality - 208 kb
Section 3.14 discusses air quality in the project area and potential impacts during construction and long-term.
Chapter 3.15 Noise - 755 kb
Section 3.15 discusses existing and projected future sound levels the project area with and without the project and identifies potential impacts. Modeling results for permanent impacts are presented, and short-term construction impacts are discussed as well.
Chapter 3.16 Visual Environment - 1 mb
Section 3.16 presents the existing visual/scenic environment in the project area, including views from key observation points. Before and after images help to illustrate potential impacts of the alternatives.
Chapter 3.17 Hazardous Waste Sites and Spills - 701 kb
Section 3.17 summarizes a study of potential hazardous waste sites and another study of the potential hazards of spills from the highway, with a focus on the Kenai River.
Chapter 3.18 Energy - 203 kb
Section 3.18 discusses use of fuel and other energy in construction and in operation of the highway, with and without the alternatives.
Chapter 3.19 Floodplains - 471 kb
Section 3.19 presents mapped floodplains and discusses flooding potential. Included is discussion of the potential of each alternative to affect river flooding and discussion of floods on each alternative.
Chapter 3.20 Wetlands and Vegetation - 951 kb
Section 3.20 discusses upland and wetland vegetation and the functions and values of project area wetlands. Vegetation and wetland maps are included. Impacts of the alternatives on wetlands and vegetation/habitat are included.
Chapter 3.21 Fish and Essential Fish Habitat - 703 kb
Section 3.21 presents streams and lakes known to provide habitat for resident and anadromous (migrating) fish, including five species of salmon and several other species, along with the potential effects of the project alternatives on fish habitat.
Chapter 3.22 Wildlife - 1 Mb
Section 3.22 presents separate subsections on brown bear, moose, birds, and other wildlife. Habitat and status of various species is included, along with potential impacts of the alternatives to habitat, individual animals, and species populations and movements.
Chapter 3.23 Coastal Zone Management - 390 kb
Section 3.23 presents the Kenai Peninsula Borough’s Coastal Zone Management Plan, project effects regarding the plan’s enforceable policies, and the plan’s review by the borough.
Chapter 3.24 Permits - 304 kb
Section 3.24 presents the local, State, and Federal permits, authorizations, and other review expected to be required for each alternative.
Chapter 3.25 Short-Term Uses vs Long-Term Productivity - 173 kb
Section 3.25 discusses trade-offs between uses of the project area for improved transportation versus long-term other uses.
Chapter 3.26 Irreversible Irretrievable Commitments of Resources - 211 kb
Section 3.26 presents resources that would be used for the alternatives and discusses whether such use might cause shortages. Resources discussed include gravel, rock, asphalt, steel, and other construction materials, transportation funding, and human resources.
Chapter 3.27 Cumulative Impacts - 1 Mb
Section 3.27examines trends in past, present, and reasonably-foreseeable future actions in the project area, including the proposed project and development/activities by other agencies and private entities. Cumulative impacts that may accrue as a result of these trends are discussed.
Chapter 4 4(f) Evaluation - 6 Mb
Chapter 4 presents an analysis required by law of properties that have special protection under Section 4(f) of the Federal DOT Act. FHWA is required to avoid certain parks, recreation areas, waterfowl and wildlife refuges, and historic sites, unless there is no prudent and feasible alternative, or unless the impacts are determined to be de minimis. All build alternatives would use land from protected properties in the greater Cooper Landing area, so FHWA is required to select the alternative that has the least overall harm. This chapter presents a Least Overall Harm Analysis that will drive FHWA decision making. The analysis covers not only properties protected by Section 4(f) but incorporates non-4(f) analysis from Chapter 3 as well. Chapter 4 presents many maps, some of which provide more detail than maps in Chapter 3.
Chapter 5 Comments and Coordination - 724 kb
Chapter 5 presents a summary of public and agency involvement from 2000 to 2014. It includes a review of the process, and it presents the main issues heard.
Chapter 6 List of Preparers - 218 kb
Chapter 6 presents of list of Federal, State, and private contractor personnel who prepared the Draft SEIS and its associated studies.
Chapter 7 Distribution List - 224 kb
Chapter 8 References - 401 kb
Chapter 8 References section presents all published (written and online) and personal contact sources of information cited in the chapters of the Draft SEIS.
Chapter 9 Index - 225 kb
Chapter 9 Index presents cross references to many topics and landmarks or place names within the project area.
Appendix A Crash Report - 830 kb
Appendix B Relocation Study - 929 kb
Appendix C ANILCA 810 Evaluation - 748 kb
Appendix D Noise Report - 3 Mb
Appendix E Location Hydraulic Study - 2 Mb
Appendix F Section 4f de minimis - 2 Mb